Document Type : Original Article


1 School of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Economics, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.


Avoiding the passengers extra waiting time is a vital task for rail planners. The current research focused on minimizing the passenger waiting time on the presence of real frequently random occurred disturbances. Details of the proposed model are on the 1st line of Tehran underground rail rapid transit. All fitness functions are validated using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) by applying the hypothesis testing method. Also, a validated discrete-event computer simulation model is applied to examine the average waiting time per passenger as the key performance measure under different scenarios generated using full factorial design of experiments. The validity of the obtained optimal solution, i.e., train headway times is confirmed at a 95% level of reliability. Also, simulation outcomes indicated that the proposed response surface meta-model could efficiently provide a more reliable train operation plan to ensure a desirable level of system resiliency on the presence of random disturbances. The numerical results indicated that wait time could be reduced by 14.8% for passengers as compared with the baseline train headway plan. 


Adjetey-Bahun, K., Birregah, B., Châtelet, E., and Planchet, J.-L., (2016). "A model to quantify the resilience of mass railway transportation systems", Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Vol. 153, pp. 1-14.
Bahramian, Z., and Bagheri, M., (2015). "A simulation-based optimization approach for passenger train timetabling with periodic track maintenance and stops for praying", Journal of Modern Transportation, Vol. 23, pp. 148-157.
Basirati, M., Jokar, M. R. A., and Hassannayebi, E., (2019). "Bi-objective optimization approaches to many-to-many hub location routing with distance balancing and hard time window", Neural Computing and Applications, pp. 1-22.
Boroun, M., Ramezani, S., Vasheghani Farahani, N., Hassannayebi, E., Abolmaali, S., and Shakibayifar, M. (2020). "An efficient heuristic method for joint optimization of train scheduling and stop planning on double-track railway systems", Infor: Information Systems and Operational Research, pp. 1-28.
Bruyelle, J.-L., O’neill, C., El-Koursi, E.-M., Hamelin, F., Sartori, N., and Khoudour, L. (2014). "Improving the resilience of metro vehicle and passengers for an effective emergency response to terrorist attacks", Safety Science, Vol. 62, pp. 37-45.
Chen, L. and Miller-Hooks, E., (2012). "Resilience: An indicator of recovery capability in intermodal freight transport", Transportation Science, Vol. 46, pp. 109-123.
Chopra, S. S., Dillon, T., Bilec, M. M., and Khanna, V., (2016). "A Network-Based Framework For Assessing Infrastructure Resilience: A Case Study of The London Metro System", Journal of the Royal Society Interface, Vol. 13, 20160113.
Cox, A., Prager, F., and Rose, A., (2011). "transportation security and the role of resilience: a foundation for operational metrics", Transport Policy, Vol. 18, pp. 307-317.
D’lima, M., and Medda, F., (2015). "A new measure of resilience: an application to the london underground", Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 81, pp. 35-46.
Duy, P. N., Chapman, L., and Tight, M. (2019). "Resilient transport systems to reduce urban vulnerability to floods in emerging-coastal cities: a case study of ho chi minh city, vietnam", Travel Behaviour and Society, Vol. 15, pp. 28-43.
Ehsanifar, M., Hamta, N., and Hemesy, M. (2017). "A simulation approach to evaluate performance indices of fuzzy exponential queuing system (an m/m/c model in a banking case study)", Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 35-51. doi: 10.22116/Jiems.2017.54604
Eskandari, H., Rahaee, M.A., Hasannayebi, E., Memarpour, M., and Malek, S.A., (2013). "Evaluation of different berthing scenarios in shahid rajaee container terminal using discrete-event simulation", IEEE, pp. 3462-3474.
Freckleton, D., Heaslip, K., Louisell, W. and Collura, J. (2012). "Evaluation of resiliency of transportation networks after disasters", Transportation Research Record, 2284, pp. 109-116.
Gholamian, S., (2017). "A discrete-event optimization framework for mixed-speed train timetabling problem", Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 64-84. Doi: 10.22116/Jiems.2017.54607
Gholizad, A., Ahmadi, L., Hassannayebi, E., Memarpour, M., and Shakibayifar, M., (2017). "A system dynamics model for the analysis of the deregulation in electricity market", International Journal of System Dynamics Applications (IJSDA), Vol. 6, pp. 1-30.
Greenberg, M., Lioy, P., Ozbas, B., Mantell, N., Isukapalli, S., Lahr, M., Altiok, T., Bober, J., Lacy, C., and Lowrie, K. (2013). "Passenger Rail Security, Planning, And Resilience: Application Of Network, Plume, And Economic Simulation Models As Decision Support Tools.", Risk Analysis, Vol. 33, pp. 1969-1986.
Hassannayebi, E., Boroun, M., Jordehi, S. A. and Kor, H., (2019a). "Train Schedule Optimization In A High-Speed Railway System Using A Hybrid Simulation And Meta-Model Approach"; Computers & Industrial Engineering, Vol. 138, 106110.
Hassannayebi, E., Memarpour, M., Mardani, S., Shakibayifar, M., Bakhshayeshi, I., and Espahbod, S., (2019b). "A hybrid simulation model of passenger emergency evacuation under disruption scenarios: A case study of a large transfer railway station", Journal of Simulation, pp. 1-25.
Hassannayebi, E., Sajedinejad, A. and Mardani, S. (2014). "Urban rail transit planning using a two-stage simulation-based optimization approach", Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, Vol. 49, pp. 151-166.
Hassannayebi, E., Sajedinejad, A., and Mardani, S., (2016a). Disruption management in urban rail transit system: a simulation based optimization approach, handbook of research on emerging innovations in rail transportation engineering, Igi-Global, India.
Hassannayebi, E., and Zegordi, S.H., (2017). "Variable and adaptive neighbourhood search algorithms for rail rapid transit timetabling problem", Computers & Operations Research, Vol. 78, pp. 439-453.
Hassannayebi, E., Zegordi, S.H., Amin-Naseri, M.R., and Yaghini, M., (2016b). "Demand-oriented timetable design for urban rail transit under stochastic demand", Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Vol. 9, pp. 28-56.
Hassannayebi, E., Zegordi, S.H., Amin-Naseri, M.R., and Yaghini, M. (2017). "Train timetabling at rapid rail transit lines: a robust multi-objective stochastic programming approach", Operational Research, Vol. 17, pp. 435-477.
Hassannayebi, E., Zegordi, S.H., Amin-Naseri, M.R., and Yaghini, M.J.P.T., (2018). "Optimizing headways for urban rail transit services using adaptive particle swarm algorithms", Public Transport, Vol. 10, pp. 23-62.
Hassannayebi, E., Zegordi, S. H., and Yaghini, M., (2016d). "Train timetabling for an urban rail transit line using a lagrangian relaxation approach", Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 40, pp. 9892-9913.
Hua, W., and Ong, G.P., (2017). "Network survivability and recoverability in urban rail transit systems under disruption", IET Intelligent Transport Systems, Vol. 11, pp. 641-648.
Ilati, G., Sheikholeslami, A., and Hassannayebi, E., (2014). "A simulation-based optimization approach for integrated port resource allocation problem", PROMET - Traffic & Transportation, Vol. 26, pp. 243-255.
Ip, W.H., and Wang, D., (2011). "Resilience and friability of transportation networks: evaluation, analysis and optimization", IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 5, pp. 189-198.
Iravani, M., Bashirzadeh, R., and Tarokh, M., (2020). "Developing an urban congestion pricing model by considering sustainability improvement and using a multi-objective optimization approach", Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 56-76. doi: 10.22116/Jiems.2019.178753.1262
Jin, J.G., Tang, L.C., Sun, L., and Lee, D.-H., (2014). "Enhancing metro network resilience via localized integration with bus services", Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Vol. 63, pp. 17-30.
Khan, M.B., and Zhou, X., (2010). "Stochastic optimization model and solution algorithm for robust double-track train-timetabling problem", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. 11, pp. 81-89.
Kim, M., Schonfeld, P., and Kim, E. (2013). "Simulation-based rail transit optimization model", Transportation Research Record, Vol. 2374, pp. 143-153.
Lai, X., Teng, J., Schonfeld, P., and Ling, L., (2020). "Resilient schedule coordination for a bus transit corridor", Journal of Advanced Transportation, pp. 1-12.
Li, M., and Wang, H., (2017). "Resiliency assessment of urban rail transit networks: A case study of shanghai metro", IEEE, pp. 620-625.
Li, M., Wang, H., and Wang, H., (2019). "Resilience assessment and optimization for urban rail transit networks: a case study of beijing subway network", IEEE, pp. 71221-71234.
Li, X., Yamamoto, T., Yan, T., Lu, L., and Ye, X., (2020). "First train timetabling for urban rail transit networks with maximum passenger transfer satisfaction", Sustainability, Vol. 12, 4166.
Lu, J., Ma, X., and Xing, Y., (2019). "Risk factors affecting the severity of disruptions in metro operation in shanghai, 2013-2016", Journal of Transportation Safety & Security, pp. 1-24.
Memarpour, M., Hassannayebi, E., Miab, N.F., and Farjad, A., (2019). "Dynamic allocation of promotional budgets based on maximizing customer equity", Operational Research, pp. 1-25.
Montgomery, D.C., (2017). Design and analysis of experiments, John Wiley & Sons, USA.
Omer, M., Mostashari, A., Nilchiani, R., and Mansouri, M., (2012). "A framework for assessing resiliency of maritime transportation systems", Maritime Policy & Management, Vol. 39, pp. 685-703.
Pavlov, A., Ivanov, D., Dolgui, A., and Sokolov, B., (2017). "Hybrid fuzzy-probabilistic approach to supply chain resilience assessment", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 65, pp. 303-315.
Qi, J., Li, S., Gao, Y., Yang, K., and Liu, P., (2018). "Joint optimization model for train scheduling and train stop planning with passengers distribution on railway corridors", Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 69, pp. 556-570.
Rajabighamchi, F., Hajlou, E. M. H., and Hassannayebi, E., (2019). "A multi-objective optimization model for robust skip-stop scheduling with earliness and tardiness penalties", Urban Rail Transit, Vol. 5, pp. 172-185.
Ramezani, S., and Naderi, K., (2018). "A multi-objective optimization model for locating the distribution warehouses in the logistic network supply chain: a case study of bonny chow co.", Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 26-42. doi: 10.22116/Jiems.2018.66502
Rastbin, S., Mozaffar, F., Behzadfar, M., and Gholami Shahbandi, M., (2017). "Designing the optimum plan for regenerating the pedestrian network of historic districts using bi-level programming (case study: historical-cultural district of tehran, Iran)", Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 34-54. doi: 10.22116/Jiems.2017.51962
Sajedinejad, A., Mardani, S., Hasannayebi, E., Mir Mohammadi K, S., and Kabirian, A., (2011). "SIMARAIL: simulation based optimization software for scheduling railway network", In: Simulation Conference (WSC), Proceedings Of The 2011 Winter, IEEE, pp. 3730-3741.
Shafieezadeh, M., Kalantar Hormozi, M., Hassannayebi, E., Ahmadi, L., Soleymani, M., and Gholizad, A., (2020). "A system dynamics simulation model to evaluate project planning policies", International Journal of Modelling and Simulation, Vol. 40, pp. 201-216.
Shahabi, A., Raissi, S., Khalili-Damghani, K., and Rafei, M., (2019). "Designing a resilient skip-stop schedule in rapid rail transit using a simulation-based optimization methodology", Operational Research, pp. 1-31. doi:
Shakibayifar, M., Hassannayebi, E., Jafary, H., and Sajedinejad, A., (2017a). "Stochastic optimization of an urban rail timetable under time‐dependent and uncertain demand", Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry, Vol. 33, pp. 640-661.
Shakibayifar, M., Hassannayebi, E., Mirzahossein, H., Taghikhah, F., and Jafarpur, A.J., (2018). "An intelligent simulation platform for train traffic control under disturbance", International Journal of Modelling Simulation, pp. 1-22.
Shakibayifar, M., Hassannayebi, E., Mirzahossein, H., Zohrabnia, S., and Shahabi, A., (2017b). "An integrated train scheduling and infrastructure development model in railway networks", Scientia Iranica, Vol. 24, pp. 3409-3422.
Shakibayifar, M., Sheikholeslami, A., Corman, F., and Hassannayebi, E., (2017c). "An integrated rescheduling model for minimizing train delays in the case of line blockage", Operational Research, pp. 1-29.
Stroeve, S. H., and Everdij, M. H. C., (2017). "Agent-based modelling and mental simulation for resilience engineering in air transport", Safety Science, Vol. 93, pp. 29-49.
Sun, D. J., and Guan, S., (2016). "Measuring vulnerability of urban metro network from line operation perspective", Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 94, pp. 348-359.
Tavan, F., and Sajadi, S., (2015). "Determination of optimum of production rate of network failure prone manufacturing systems with perishable items using discrete event simulation and taguchi design of experiment", Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 16-26
Uday, P., and Marais, K., (2015). "Designing resilient systems‐of‐systems: a survey of metrics, methods, and challenges", Systems Engineering, Vol. 18, pp. 491-510.
Wang, Z., Ma, W., and Chan, A., (2020). "Exploring the relationships between the topological characteristics of subway networks and service disruption impact", Sustainability, Vol. 12, 3960.
Wei, Q., Niu, R., and Tang, T., (2018). "Assessment of metro signalling system resilience", IEEE, pp. 1-5.
Yin, H., Han, B., and Li, D., (2016). "Evaluating disruption in rail transit network: A case study of beijing subway", Procedia Engineering, Vol. 137, pp. 49-58.
Zhang, D.-M., Du, F., Huang, H., Zhang, F., Ayyub, B. M., and Beer, M., (2018). "Resiliency assessment of urban rail transit networks: shanghai metro as an example", Safety Science, Vol. 106, pp. 230-243.
Zhou, L., and Chen, Z., (2020). "Measuring the performance of airport resilience to severe weather events", Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 83, P.102362.