Document Type : Original Article


1 Industrial Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Industrial Engineering, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

3 School of Strategy and Leadership, Faculty of Business and Law, Coventry University, Coventry, UK.

4 Industrial Engineering and Management Department, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.


This paper aims to confront the uncertainties in the flexible job shop scheduling (FJSS) problem by considering the tax regulations of energy consumption and timely delivery. Uncertainties include all unexpected disruptions such as machine breakdowns, modifications or cancellation of the orders, and receiving new orders that lead to failure in initial scheduling. Two strategies with the energy-saving approach have been proposed based on scheduling repair. Two considered objective functions are to minimize the tax cost on surplus energy consumption and to minimize total cost of jobs tardiness. The problem is described with the parameters and decision variables clearly in the form of MIP model. Moreover, the proposed model is investigated using data of a real case study in a company based on casting processes. Since the problem is well known strongly NP-hard, a new approach is introduced based on the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) to find proper solutions for decision-makers. The computational results show that the proposed model and solution approach repairs properly the original scheduling and could improve the Pareto front comparing with the original scheduling. Due to the result, two proposed strategies could reduce total cost of jobs tardiness more than 47.56% compared with the original scheduling in eight different cases. It could also improve the second objective more than 56.91%. This approach will help the manufacturing industry managers, especially in make-to-order (MTO) systems with high-powered machines to respond rapidly to unexpected disruptions with the lowest energy consumption and tardiness penalty.