Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Babol, Iran.

2 Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Babol, Iran.

3 Department of industrial engineering, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.


Multi-echelon distribution mechanism is common in supply chain design and logistics systems in which freight is delivered to the customers through intermediate depots (IDs), instead of using direct shipments. This primarily decreases the cost of the chain and consequences of environmental (energy consumption) and social (traffic, air pollution, etc.) logistic operations. This paper develops a novel multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming model (MOMILP) for a two-echelon green capacitated vehicle routing problem (2E-CVRP) in which environmental issues and time windows constraints are considered for perishable products delivery phase. To validate the proposed mathematical model, several numerical examples are generated randomly and solved using CPLEX solver of GAMS software. The ε-constraint method is applied to the model to deal with the multi-objectiveness of the proposed model. Finally, the best Pareto solution for each problem is determined based on the reference point approach (RPA) as one of the most effective techniques to help the decision-makers.